Above photo, back row: Dr Mark Lysyshyn, Dr Keith Ahamad, Mayor Gregor Robertson, Minister Judy Darcy, Sunny Khangura (Lookout), Dean Wilson
The majority of street drugs tested in Vancouver don’t contain the substance people thought they’d purchased, according to results of a drug checking pilot study.
Drug checking allows people to anonymously submit samples of street drugs to be analyzed for their chemical makeup. The pilot study was implemented in November 2017 at Insite and Powell Street Getaway using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and fentanyl test strips, which can test a range of substances, including opioids, stimulants and other psychoactive drugs such as MDMA, and provide results in a matter of minutes.
Over the first six months of the study, researchers tested 1,714 substances, finding that less than two-fifths (39%) were found to contain the substance that the client expected.
Of the 1,006 (59%) samples sold as opioids, only 186 (19%) were found to contain the expected substance in any detectable amount, and 888 (88%) tested positive for fentanyl. Of the 822 samples expected to be specifically “heroin,” only 109 (13%) contained the expected substance (i.e., diacetylmorphine) in any amount. Of the 400 samples sold as stimulants, 354 (89%) contained the expected substance in any amount and 18 (5%) tested positive for fentanyl.
This study is published in the September 2018 issue of Drug and Alcohol Dependence by me and several others including Evan Wood, Kenneth Tupper, Karen McCrae, and Ian Garber. The study can be accessed for free until September 16 on the journal's website.
In addition to providing clients with information about the make-up of their substance, drug checking also gives health and other service providers a means to collect and assess information about what is circulating in illegal drug markets, the monitoring and surveillance of which are otherwise notoriously difficult. During the first six months of the study period, operators of the FTIR were able to provide real-time information about dangerous adulterants found in the drug supply to the VCH RADAR network, which provides text message alerts to people who use drugs.
Our region is facing a public health emergency driven by adulterated street drugs. Drug checking is a tool that helps people identify which drugs may contain toxic adulterants such as fentanyl. We have seen that this service encourages people to take harm reduction measures like reducing their dose so that they can avoid having an accidental overdose.